Activity: The indiscreet screen
Teaching- Learning Approach:
Problem-based learning (PBL)
By the end of the activity, students should be able to:
- Identify the barriers and opportunities related to the use of telemedicine for patient care and the ethical issues of this practice
- Analyse the role of telemedicine today, the different approaches and strategies and reflect on their impact on patient care
As regards transversal skills, students should be able to:
Interpersonal and socio-emotional skills:
- Express ideas clearly and fluently
- Use precise and descriptive/content-specific vocabulary to enhance the topic or message
- Share information in an organised and interesting way
- Share an analysis of the main message to interpret, synthesise and/or evaluate the meaning of the content in order to draw a logical conclusion about the topic
- Show empathy and use non-verbal communication and active listening
- Perform tasks efficiently and carefully
- Persevere in the face of difficulties
- Develop positive and emotionally safe interaction and develop and co-create teamwork
- Work cooperatively with others
- Develop an empathetic leadership by understanding the needs of others and being aware of their feelings and thoughts, and to facilitate collaborative and participatory problem-solving
- Create a non-discrimination atmosphere
- Facilitate conflict resolution, remain calm under pressure, and control one’s emotions in conflict situations
Critical and creative thinking:
- Identify and deal creatively with unexpected, unforeseen, and complex situations that can be exploited, and to evaluate different solutions
- Acquire, process, produce, and evaluate information critically and from the perspectives of different fields and decisions, taking into account both individual and community perspectives
- Question norms, practices, and opinions, and to reflect on own one’s values, perceptions and actions
- Develop innovative solutions to answer different questions and to create new and worthwhile ideas; elaborate and evaluate ideas in order to improve and maximise their creative efforts
Learning to learn:
- Self-report one’s feelings, thoughts, and effort concerning a certain task in order to perform tasks more effectively
- Identify learning outcomes, relate them to prior knowledge, and manage her/his own learning process
- Plan, monitor and assess one’s understanding and performance on a certain task
- Use prior knowledge to plan a strategy for approaching a new task, and to transfer what they have learned from one context to another, or from a previous task to a new task
Brief description of the activity
This activity is devised for students to learn more about the ethics of relationships in telemedicine, and the advantages and disadvantages of this technology. Students are also expected to reflect on the importance of team communication.
Activity plan: step by step
Before the activity
1. Problem definition:
For this activity, we will use an initial situation called “The indiscreet screen”. Here is the case:
Joana did not have an easy day at work today. She is a doctor in primary health care and spent the whole day doing consultations via videoconference. At the end of her working day, her last visit was particularly difficult. It was only about adjusting Ana’s medication, but the session was very long because there was a lot of noise in the patient’s house, and she was constantly looking after her mother, who seemed to have Alzheimer’s or any other dementia. Joana found it very difficult to concentrate, she could hardly listen to the woman because on top of all that, she could not stop noticing the house’s slovenliness. In addition, Ana had constant connection problems, and was unable to use the computer properly to solve them. Joana ended the consultation perplexed at not knowing the family situation of the patient, whom she had been caring for many years. When she called social services to report this situation, she realised that Ana was a well-known patient of the team.
2. Students and activity organisation of the activity.
Students will be asked to work in small groups, between 6 to 8 students. Each group will be assigned a tutor who will monitor them throughout the process.
This activity is scheduled to last approximately 5 weeks, although this timing can be adapted according to the needs of the institution, course or group.
The activity consists of a set of follow-up tutorials, in which the group and tutor meet to share progress and define next steps, followed by periods of autonomous work where the group can meet and work collaboratively according to the agreements made during the follow-up sessions. A work plan example is presented below:
Team Session 1
Team Session 2
Team Session 3 / Presentation
Presentation of the activity and general organisation
Presentation of the working groups (random assignment is recommended)
Presentation of additional information and support materials
Presentation of the problem (video) and brainstorming
Identification of group learning objectives
Drawing up a work plan
Establishment of group agreements and role distributions
Bibliographic search on the study phenomenon
Sharing and discussion of the group’s findings
Selection of relevant information according to pre-defined learning objectives
Agreements on written report and task distribution
Elaboration of conclusions for the final report
Approach to the final presentation
Synthesis of the work done
Final report delivery
Discussion with tutor and other groups, if possible.
Self-evaluation of teamwork
Things to take into account prior to the activity:
During the activity
The key elements of the development of the activity are described below:
The follow-up sessions
There will be a total of three follow-up sessions, all face-to-face, which will be planned during university hours to facilitate attendance.
- Alignment of group members and creation of the team.
- Presentation of the situation (short description of the case)
- Brainstorm the most noteworthy elements read (these can be written on a blackboard).
- Elaboration of open questions for the identification of knowledge needs and research interests by the team
- Prioritisation of questions and selection of those that the team wants to investigate
- Creation of starting hypotheses (they can be several and are prioritised at the end).
- Orientation of the bibliographic search
- Work plan (students propose how to structure the work).
The students must end the tutorial by reaching agreements on the tasks to be completed for the next tutorial.
- Organization of the team: Review of the agreements made in the last session and assessment of the situation of the team regarding the work.
- Provision by each student of the results obtained from the bibliographic sources consulted and exchange and discussion of information.
- Selection and prioritisation of information according to its relevance to respond to the defined objectives.
- Consensus of a structure of relevant content to the preparation of the written report
- Resolution of conflicts, if any.
- Oral presentation of teamwork (between 15 and 20 minutes), preferably in an open session with other groups.
- Open speaking session and discussion of conclusions
To be done only with the group and the tutor:
- Feedback activity in which all members participate, including teachers.
- Indications for co-evaluation and self-evaluation
The final report
At the end of the activity, all the groups will have to deliver a report that sets out the objectives and initial hypotheses, the working method used, the results obtained from the bibliographic search and the genuine discussion of the group.
This document must have a short length, between 6,000 and 7,000 words, and must portray the learning process carried out by the group. This report will be submitted by the end of the activity.
The oral presentation will last between 15 and 20 minutes and will be held in an open manner with other groups that also carried out the activity, to promote the exchange of ideas. Afterwards, there will be a round of questions and dialogue around the projects presented in which both students and teachers will be able to participate. The defence of the project may have audiovisual support, or whatever the group deems most appropriate.
After the activity
Once the activity is finished and the last session (oral presentation) is done, it is time for evaluation. Below there is a proposal of evaluation strategies, although these can be adapted according to the needs of the institution, course or group.
- Tutor evaluation: It consists of an assessment carried out by the tutor and which can be collective or individual. This must take into account the different outcomes provided by the group (report and oral presentation), as well as the learning process shown in the follow-up sessions
- Self-evaluation: Evaluation where each member of the group evaluates his/her own contribution to the group dynamics
- Co-evaluation: Evaluation where each member of the group evaluates the contribution to the group dynamics of the different members
- Peer-review: Evaluation where each group receives the final report of another group (anonymized) and evaluates it qualitatively. This evaluation will then be sent to the group that prepared the work. This activity promotes critical thinking, as well as the preparation of constructive feedback.
Role of teacher(s)
Teachers, in the role of group tutors, must adopt a facilitation role throughout the process. This implies that their function will not be to provide theoretical knowledge or define how the group should act, but rather to accompany the group, facilitate questioning and help the group move towards its goals. Tutors must also intervene in the case of undesired or disrespectful behaviour within the group, and they must mediate in the resolution of conflicts that may appear.
Finally, it will be the responsibility of the tutor(s) to evaluate the learning process and the final result of the group, which will be combined with the self-assessments completed by the group itself.
Transversal skills are difficult to evaluate, particularly among big groups of students. Therefore, in this section we propose a tool for students to self-assess the development of these skills. The tool is divided into three dimensions: suitability of the learning activity, level of achievement of learning outcomes, and transferability to professional settings. You can adapt the dimensions and/or indicators that you use according to your teaching-learning context and needs.
Evaluation tool to self-assess the development of skills during the activity
For each of the following statements, select the best answer on a scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means “Not at all” and 4 indicates “Yes, totally”. N/A means “not applicable”.
|DIMENSION 1. Suitability of the learning activity|
|I found this learning activity adequate in terms of time|
|I found this learning activity adequate in terms of resources (material resources, physical space, etc.)|
|I found this learning activity adequate in terms of content|
|I found this learning activity engaging|
|I found this learning activity challenging|
|I found this learning activity disruptive in comparison with other learning methodologies|
|I found this learning activity useful to learn [add the subject]|
|I found this learning activity useful to retain knowledge|
|This learning activity motivated me to deepen my knowledge of [add subject or hard skill]|
|This learning activity allowed me to feel emotions that would be rather difficult to experience with other learning methodologies|
|I would recommend this learning activity to others|
|DIMENSION 2. Level of achievement of learning outcomes|
|This learning activity helped me to improve…|
|…my ability to [add a row for each learning outcome of the activity that you performed, both related to hard and transversal skills]|
|DIMENSION 3. Transferability to professional settings|
|After this learning activity…|
|…I will be better able to apply what I learned to my reality (everyday life, classroom, professional life)|
|…I feel more capable to perform in a professional setting|
|…I feel I can make better choices regarding professional situations|
|…I feel more prepared and self-confident to address professional situations|
OPEN QUESTION – Use this space to explain whatever you think is remarkable from the learning activity, including strengths, weaknesses, improvements, potential uses, feelings or dilemmas you encountered during the activity.
Download evaluation tool in pdf here.